The Human Givens Approach to Psychotherapy
The principles comprising the organizing idea now known as the Human Givens Approach grew out of the work of a group of psychologists and psychotherapists who were trying to bring greater clarity to the way people who become depressed, anxious, traumatised or addicted are helped, as well as making such help more reliably effective.
In 1992 they formed the European Therapy Studies Institute (ETSI), whose aim was to discover why some psychotherapy approaches appeared to work and others didn’t. Leading figures from the start were Joe Griffin and Ivan Tyrrell. Discarding any approach that research showed was not helpful, they set about understanding how what was left matched up to the emerging findings of neuroscience, asking “why does this work?”
The result was a new synthesis of everything that can reliably be said to help human beings function well and be happy, together with remarkable new insights into the purpose of some long-unexplained brain mechanisms. These derived from the work by Joe Griffin on why we dream.
What are the ‘human givens’?
We are all born with innate knowledge programmed into us from our genes. Throughout life we experience this knowledge as feelings of physical and emotional need. These feelings evolved over millions of years and, whatever our cultural background, are our common biological inheritance. They are the driving force that motivates us to become fully human and succeed in whatever environment we find ourselves in. It is because these psychological needs are incorporated into our biology at conception that we call them (and the innate resources we have in order to help us meet them) human ‘givens’ – they are the givens and drivers of human nature.
Our given physical needs
We need air to breathe, water, nutritious food and sufficient sleep. These are the paramount physical needs. Without them, we quickly die. In addition, we also need the freedom to stimulate our senses and exercise our muscles. We instinctively seek sufficient and secure shelter where we can grow and reproduce ourselves and bring up our young. These physical needs are intimately bound up with our emotional needs — the main focus of human givens psychology.
Our given emotional needs
Emotions create distinctive psychobiological states in us and drive us to take action. The emotional needs nature has programmed us with are there to connect us to the external world, particularly to other people, and survive in it. They seek their fulfillment through the way we interact with the environment. Consequently, when these needs are not met in the world, nature ensures we suffer considerable distress — anxiety, anger, depression etc. — and our expression of distress, in whatever form it takes, impacts on those around us.
People whose emotional needs are met in a balanced way do not suffer mental health problems. When psychotherapists and teachers pay attention to this they are at their most effective. In short, it is by meeting our physical and emotional needs that we survive and develop as individuals and a species. There is widespread agreement as to the nature of our emotional needs – the essential ones for our mental health are listed below.
Emotional needs include:
- Security — safe territory and an environment which allows us to develop fully
- Attention (to give and receive it) — a form of nutrition
- Sense of autonomy and control — having volition to make responsible choices
- Emotional intimacy — to know that at least one other person accepts us totally for who we are, “warts ‘n’ all”
- Feeling part of a wider community
- Privacy — opportunity to reflect and consolidate experience
- Sense of status within social groupings
- Sense of competence and achievement
- Meaning and purpose — which come from being stretched in what we do and think.
Our innate resources
The physical and emotional needs that we have are not the only human givens – nature also gave us innate ‘guidance systems’ to help us meet our needs. We call these ‘resources’.
The resources nature gave us to help us meet our needs include:
- The ability to develop complex long term memory, which enables us to add to our innate knowledge and learn
- The ability to build rapport, empathise and connect with others
- Imagination, which enables us to focus our attention away from our emotions, use language and problem solve more creatively and objectively
- Emotions and instincts
- A conscious, rational mind that can check out our emotions, question, analyse and plan
- The ability to ‘know’ — that is, understand the world unconsciously through metaphorical pattern matching
- An observing self — that part of us that can step back, be more objective and be aware of itself as a unique centre of awareness, apart from intellect, emotion and conditioning
- A dreaming brain that metaphorically defuses unfulfilled expectations held in the nervous system because they were not resolved or acted out the previous day.
It is such needs and tools together that make up the human givens, nature’s genetic endowment to humanity. Over enormous stretches of time, they underwent continuous refinement as they drove our evolution on. They are best thought of as inbuilt patterns — biological templates — that continually interact with one another and (in undamaged people) seek their natural fulfilment in the world in ways that allow us to survive, live together as many-faceted individuals in a great variety of different social groupings, and flourish.
It is the way those needs are met, and the way we use the resources that nature has given us, that determine the physical, mental and moral health of an individual. As such, the human givens are the benchmark position to which we must all refer — in education, mental and physical health and the way we organise and run our lives.
When we feel emotionally fulfilled and are operating effectively within society, we are more likely to be mentally healthy and stable. But when too many innate physical and emotional needs are not being met in the environment, or when our resources are used incorrectly, unwittingly or otherwise, we suffer considerable distress – and so do those around us.
Since 1996 over 200,000 people have attended Human Givens courses. The Human Givens Institute (HGI) was set up in 2001 as both the professional body of human givens therapists In 2003 the first edition of ‘Human Givens: The new approach to emotional health and clear thinking’ was published in hardback to great acclaim. Demand was so great it was republished almost immediately and then came out in paperback. Joe Griffin’s ‘Why we dream: the definitive answer’, was first published in 2004 (with a paperback version in 2006).
A new series of self-help books, Essential help in troubled times – the human givens approach, was launched to introduce new knowledge (about getting out of depression, curing addictions, liberating yourself from pain, releasing yourself from anger and mastering anxiety) to the general public. Highly practical and written without jargon, they are suitable for individuals and anyone who wants to help others. (Helpful CDs are also available.)
Human Givens Therapy is available at the Orchard Clinic in Thrapston
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Janette Houghton Therapy
Telephone: 07731 673070